World War II – Propaganda

I chose this poster because i thought that it would be easy to find an idea revolving this idea. During WWII the meaning this poster had was that it encouraged women of the society to “be a man” and join the navy.

I created my poster in this way because I felt that this character -Mulan- represents women who try to join the army in order to save their family and country. She disguises as a man in order to do so. This is similar to what the poster tries to say “I wish i were a man”. I changed certain things in my poster, such as the font. I switched the word ‘Navy’ for ‘Army’ as it suits the character I had chosen more. I also changed the original text which said “United States Navy” into “Imperial Chinas Army”, also to suit the character and story. I didn’t change where the picture and text were placed because it will be easier to notice that my poster is a recreation of the original “I wish I were a man” poster.

Rise of Hitler & Yertle the Turtle

Yertle the Turtle is a children’s storybook written by the renowned author Dr Seuss. It is known to be a representation of Hitler and the Nazi regime during World War II.

In this storybook, Yertle the Turtle represents Hitler. Yertle’s dictatorial rule of the pond and takeover of the surrounding area parallel to Hitler’s regime in Germany and invasion of various parts of Europe. In the second paragraph of the story, Yertle decides the kingdom he ruled was too small. He says, “I’m a ruler of all that I see. But I don’t see enough. That’s the trouble with me.” Yertle’s desire for a larger kingdom is in real world connection to Hitler’s belief in Germany’s need for lebensraum. Yertle calls for turtle’s to stack up under him so he will have a high throne too rule everything he sees. This relates to Hitler as he wanted everything he saw, such as a world of “pure” race.

In the story, Mack represents the German society. He stands for the German people who follow Hitler’s rules and beliefs due to fear. Mack supports Yertle in the form of being a turtle in the stack keeping the king up high though he is going through pain. He says, “but down here below, we are feeling great pain. I know up on top you are seeing great sights, but down here at the bottom we, too, should have rights. We turtles can’t stand it. Our shells will all crack! Besides, we need food. We are starving!” This relates to how the German society felt about Hitler being in power. The people were poor and had to live with rationed food, while Hitler was in great power at the top. They did not have rights and were suffering greatly.

While Yertle is bragging about his power and everything he rules, he is taken aback as he notices the moon starting to rise. He is absolutely furious that the moon dares to be higher than him and as a result, he orders for more turtles to be stacked below him for him to be higher. As he is doing so, Mack, the innocent turtle at the bottom of the stack, decided that he had taken enough and so, he burped. As it says in the story, “Decided he’d taken enough. And he had. And that plain little lad got a bit mad. And that plain little Mack did a plain little thing. He burped! And his burp shook the throne of the king!” This action caused the whole stack of turtles to shake, resulting in Yertle the Turtle King to fall of his throne, and into the mud. This represents the German society not being able to tolerate and having enough of Hitler and the Nazi regime. Mack’s burp is significant because it symbolizes the uprising of voices from the society.

At the end of the story, a quote is written, saying, “And the turtle, of course… all turtles are free as turtles and maybe, all creatures should be.” The turtles signify the Germans and the people affected by Hitler’s reign, therefore, Dr Seuss states that they should be free as all people should be. 

Reparations

On June 28, 1919, a £22 Billion reparation were set by the Allies – Britain, France and America – at the Treaty of Versailles as compensation and punishment for the 1914-18 war. After 92 long years Germany was finally clear of their debt and had paid of the final portion of the reparation on October 3rd 2010.

This large amount of reparation had taken an extremely long time to repay for several reasons. Firstly, Germany themselves had suffered financial crisis, hyperinflation, cancelled debts and broken promises. Germany had struggled to keep its economy high. The Treaty of Versailles had already taken so much from them, that it made it harder to repay. The German currency was extremely useless at one point in time and wheelbarrows of cash were need to buy a loaf of bread. Money was printed for absolutely everything, therefore devaluing their currency. Germany had also stopped paying their debts several times that other countries had to force them to do so. Furthermore, when the rise of the Nazi Party came along, all reparations was cancelled by Germany. Hitler reneged on reparations during his reign. Another reason why the payment rook so long was that Germany was split into East and West and a conflict about which side repays what came about.

The initial sum agreed upon for war damages in 1919 was 226billion Reichsmarks, a sum later reduced to 132billion.

It was obvious Germany didn’t agree with the terms set by the Treaty of Versailles. It angered them to sign the treaty and go through rough repayments. By paying all their depts and having a great burden lifted of their shoulders, it is sure that Germany was in relief and under less pressure.

Most of the money Germany had to repay was intended to go to Belgium and France, whose land, towns and villages were devastated by the war, and to pay the Allies some of the costs of waging it. Most of the money paid went to private individuals, pension funds and corporations holding debenture bonds as agreed under the Treaty of Versailles. The original purpose was to rebuild the French cities, but after 92 years, this purpose definitely would have changed. France’s cities were rebuilt long before Germany’s final repayment. The money now would be used in different ways.

Treaty Of Versailles – Cartoon Analysis

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In this cartoon, three men in suits are looking over their shoulder to a naked child weeping behind a pillar in a corner. The three men are drawn to be the Big Four- Georges Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson and David Lloyd George. They are shown to be leaving a building, possibly the Palace of Versailles where the Treaty of Versailles was signed. Clemenceau who is drawn at the front of the other men is wearing a white suit, while the other two men are dressed in black. This makes Clemenceau stand out and seem to be the leader. The crying child represents Germany who was forced to sign the peace terms. Beside the feet of the young boy is the peace treaty, which explains that Germany does not agree with these terms, as they are harsh and incredibly one-sided. By drawing him naked, the illustrator tells the audience that what Germany had has been stripped away from them. The innocence of the boy crying creates a sense of sympathy towards Germany. Furthermore, this shows how powerless Germany was during the signing of the treaty. On the other hand, Clemenceau looking over his shoulder while commenting “Curious! I seem to hear a child weeping!” gets the audience to depict him as a pitiless and callous man. His comment suggests that he does not notice or understand Germany’s cries for more considerate terms. Georges Clemenceau earned the nickname ‘The Tiger’ for several reasons, but in this cartoon it is due to his fierce and harsh terms and punishment for Germany.

The title of the cartoon is “Peace and Future Cannon Fodder.” This phrase contradicts the two themes of peace and future cannon fodder. A “Cannon Fodder” is soldiers regarded or treated as expendable in battle. This title was given to this cartoon, as it was believed that all the Treaty of Versailles did was set up the future generations of the world to be nothing more than “cannon fodder”. In addition, this tells us that there is peace now but there will be war in the future. This suggests that the illustrator of this cartoon does not agree completely with the terms set by the powers on the Treaty of Versailles as he predicts that the present peace will just stir up anger in the Germans and eventually lead to future war.

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In this cartoon, a horse is shown to be strapped to a cart with a load of ‘Unlimited Indemnity’ on it. Indemnity is the money paid as compensation. The load is drawn to be extremely heavy that the horse is lifted up and is unable to touch the ground. The horse represents Germany, as the name of the country is written across the neck of the animal. The large load represents the reparation settlement the countries had decided for Germany. £6.6 billion is an extremely large settlement to pay and this was the reason for the load on the cart. The horse being lifted up represents Germanys inability to move, as there are too many repayments on their shoulders. Under the illustration, the words “Perhaps it would gee-up better if we let it touch earth” are written. Gee-up is commonly directed at horses to move faster. This comment suggests that Germany should be carrying less of a burden in order for them to payback the reparation. There are two men in front of the horse; one is shown to be holding a whip, while the other is holding a shovel. The man with the whip is France, as in reality France wanted Germany to pay back for all the French land and lives destroyed. The man with the shovel is British. He is the one who says “Perhaps it would gee-up better if we let it touch earth.” This is true, as the British leader did not want Germany to be treated as harshly as the France wanted. The French man’s face expression shows disagreement towards Britain and hatred towards Germany. On the other hand, the British man’s face expression indicates worry and sympathy. The shovel in his hand tells us that he has been loading the ‘indemnity’ onto the cart for Germany to take as their responsibility. By holding onto the reigns of the horse, the audience can tell that France is in charge and has power over Germany.

Both these illustrators convey a similar opinion that the terms on the Treaty of Versailles are much too harsh for Germany to handle.

These messages don’t really differ in attitude towards Germany as they both convey a feel of sympathy towards her and extreme harshness from France. The “Peace and Future Cannon Fodder” cartoon is lightly more sympathetic of Germany’s situation because it involves an innocent child crying, which generally creates more sympathy from its audience.

The Armistice

FRENCH REJOICE, END OF GREAT WAR

At around 11:15am on November the 11th, the streets of Paris began to flood with crowds of people. The war had ended, and the spontaneous celebration had begun.

The people of Paris were woken by a long-drawn-out roar, first it bothered them, but with realization that the armistice had finally been signed, they shook away the feeling of bother and gave way to the disbelief, delighted and rapt surprise. The news spread like wild fire and the roar grew. People poured out onto the streets and over-thrilled French citizens filled the boulevards, great squares and public places.

The whole of France celebrated – from the small villages to the large cities – all its citizens were rejoicing the end of the cruel war, which had a horrifying effect on its country in every aspect possible. This was the first time in a long, dark and sorrowful four years that France was able to celebrate and feel relieved.

Parades were held on the streets of Paris, where cars were driven down the streets as men jumped on them and cheered. People of all ages were gathered with noisemakers, banners and streamers. Men were waving the French flag and tying them over their shoulders. Not long after, marching bands began to make their way through the main streets, banging on their drums, blowing their trombones and striking their cymbals.

The whole country was finally relieved from the tension and burden the Great War had brought upon them. In Paris, gas lamps were lit for the first time in four years. Even Frances allies, Great Britain, rung their Big Ben for the first time since the start of the war in August 1914.

The massive celebration worldwide was due to the signing of the armistice treaty by Marshal Ferdinand Foch on behalf of the allies and Matthias Erzberger for the Germans.

“After three days of intense negotiations, the German delegation that had been brought to the personal carriage of Marshall Ferdinand Foch was ordered by its government in Berlin to sign any terms put on the table by the Allies,” an anonymous source tells us. “Serious social disorder had forced the government in Berlin into giving out this instruction as people had taken to the streets as a result of chronic food shortages caused by the British naval blockade. Therefore, the German delegation led by Matthias Erzberger signed the terms of the Armistice.”

The Somme Punch

Image‘The Somme Punch’ is a British made cartoon in 1916. We can tell that it is a British cartoon as the hand, with the bold words ‘BRITISH ARMY’, is punching a Kaiser’s nose, which is indicating the Somme. The British had thought they were definitely going beat the German’s and win the battle. The cartoonist had entitled this as TheSomme “Punch” because it represented the British punching Germany at the Somme so their first line of defense would fall.

The significance of the Kaiser’s nose representing the Somme is that by punching the nose generally causes one’s guard to fall and Britain wanted this to suggest Germany losing their guard and having their front line ofdefense fall as they get “punched”. This cartoon was drawn before the offensive because Britain had initially thought they would beat Germany, but the outcome proved that wrong. Britain did not win the battle, but instead lost thousands of their men during the fight and were the one’s to be “punched”. The British were not capable reaching the German trenched let alone destroy the barbed wire protecting the Germans.

The cartoonist’s motive for drawing this image was to lift the spirits of the British people and make them feel a sense of hope. However, because the people of Britain had high hopes, when it had come to the actual battle and the number or dead soldiers were announced, it had caused a huge let down and upsetting feel throughout the country.

Gallipoli Battle

The Gallipoli attack took place on 25 April to 18 December 1915 in the Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey. It was an attack devised by Winston Churchill to take control of the Dardanelles Straits as well as force Turkey out of the war. The plan involved the Allies, who included Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand and France.

The Gallipoli campaign is considered a military failure but also a defending moment in Australian history and the creation of the iconic Australian character and identity. There were several reasons to why Gallipoli is considered a failure such as the disastrous naval plan, unsuccessful landing of the Allies, the unfamiliarity of the terrain for the Allies and the orders from the commanders.

The British and French naval plan was to sail through the Dardanelles Straits, which were controlled by the Turks. When they had followed through with their plan, it proved to be a disaster. Many British and French ships were sunk and destroyed in the process. Even though this didn’t take place on the Gallipoli Peninsula, it was part of the military failure.

Also, the ANZAC boats had planned to ‘secretly’ land on a beach, where the land was flat, on Gallipoli very early in the morning. Due to pitch darkness and the wind, their boats had drifted in different directions, bringing them closer to a cove later known as Anzac Cove. This was the very first signs of a failing plan. Just as the boats were heading towards shore, a spark from a steamboat was seen and the Turks were warned. They were up on the hills, well prepared, and begun firing down at the enemy. Many soldiers had died before even making to land. This was a large backfire in the Allies plan to secretly attack the Turks and was the beginning of the largely failed Gallipoli battle.

Moreover, the Gallipoli battle was the first for ANZAC soldiers. This made it extremely difficult for them and their commanders to go into battle. Firstly, since it was new land, they were unfamiliar with the terrain, which was a benefit for the Turks. Also, they had little training before hand and were inexperienced. This was a great disadvantage for the Alliances. It also may have prevented them from winning the battle.

Furthermore, the command given to the Allied soldiers from their commander, Sir Ian Hamilton, ordered them to “Dig, dig, dig, until you are safe.” On the other side of the battlefield, Mustafa Kemal, a Turkish commander had told his men, “I don’t order you to fight, I order you to die. In the time it takes us to die, other troops and commanders can come and take our places.” Both these orders from the military leaders had instructed their soldiers to stand their ground no matter what it takes. Though these were acts or courage and bravery, because neither side was willing to surrender, it led on to a longer battle.

Although the Gallipoli campaign was a huge failure, it was also a defining moment in Australian history and the creation of the iconic Australian character and identity. This battle had brought Australia a great achievement. They were now a huge part of world history as they were involved in a World War. Moreover, it was considered the birth of their nation. It was a proud moment for the nation as it brought them honor and recognition of their valiant soldiers. Anzac day is celebrated around Australia and New Zealand to commemorate and remember the bravery of the soldiers who fought and died in battle.

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